Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in adults. Although vitamin D deficiency is associated with AF risk factors, retrospective studies of association with AF have shown mixed results. We sought to determine the efficacy of calcium and vitamin D (CaD) supplementation for AF prevention in a randomized trial.We performed a secondary analysis of the Women's Health Initiative trial on CaD supplementation versus placebo. We linked participants to their Medicare claims to ascertain incident AF.Among 16,801 included participants, there were 1,453 (8.6%) cases of incident AF over an average of 4.5 years, at an average rate of 19.9 events per 1,000 person-years. We found no significant difference in incident AF rates between the CaD and placebo arms (hazard ratio 1.02 for CaD vs placebo, 95% CI 0.92-1.13). After multivariate adjustment, there was no significant association between baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels and incident AF (hazard ratio 0.92 for lowest subgroup vs highest subgroup, 95% CI 0.66-1.28).We present the first analysis of a large randomized trial of daily vitamin D supplementation for AF prevention. We found that CaD had no effect on incidence of AF in Women's Health Initiative CaD trial participants. We also found that baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was not predictive of long-term incident AF risk.
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