Background: In light of recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors for mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) malignancies, identifying patients with dMMR malignancies has become increasingly important. Although screening for dMMR in colorectal cancer (CRC) is recommended, it is less common for extracolonic gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. At Stanford Comprehensive Cancer Institute (SCCI), all GI malignancies have been screened for dMMR via immunohistochemistry since January 2016.Methods: In this study, we conducted a retrospective review of all patients with GI malignancies screened for dMMR between January 2016 and December 2017. Tumor sequencing was performed on cases negative for germline pathogenic variants where tumor material was available.Results: A total of 1425 consecutive GI malignancies were screened for dMMR at SCCI during the study period, and 1374 were included for analysis. dMMR was detected in 7.2% of all GI malignancies. We detected the highest prevalence of dMMR in gastric (15 of 150, 10.0%) followed by colorectal (63 of 694, 9.1%), pancreatic (13 of 244, 5.3%), and gastroesophageal malignancy (6 of 132, 4.5%) patients. Lynch syndrome was the most common etiology for dMMR in colorectal cancer (41.5%), double somatic (confirmed or possible) pathogenic variants the most common etiology in pancreatic cancer (44.4%), and somatic MLH1 hypermethylation the most common etiology in gastric (73.3%) and gastroesophageal cancer (83.3%).Conclusions: Given the relatively high incidence of dMMR in GI malignancies, we recommend screening all GI malignancies. Our results suggest that although a rare occurrence, double somatic pathogenic variants may be a biologically significant pathway causing dMMR in pancreatic cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1093/jncics/pkaa054
View details for PubMedID 33225206