Background Perfusion imaging is important to identify a target mismatch in stroke but requires contrast agents and postprocessing software. Purpose To use a deep learning model to predict the hypoperfusion lesion in stroke and identify patients with a target mismatch profile from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and clinical information alone, using perfusion MRI as the reference standard. Materials and Methods Imaging data sets of patients with acute ischemic stroke with baseline perfusion MRI and DWI were retrospectively reviewed from multicenter data available from 2008 to 2019 (Imaging Collaterals in Acute Stroke, Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution 2, and University of California, Los Angeles stroke registry). For perfusion MRI, rapid processing of perfusion and diffusion software automatically segmented the hypoperfusion lesion (time to maximum, =6 seconds) and ischemic core (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC], =620 * 10-6 mm2/sec). A three-dimensional U-Net deep learning model was trained using baseline DWI, ADC, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and stroke symptom sidedness as inputs, with the union of hypoperfusion and ischemic core segmentation serving as the ground truth. Model performance was evaluated using the Dice score coefficient (DSC). Target mismatch classification based on the model was compared with that of the clinical-DWI mismatch approach defined by the DAWN trial by using the McNemar test. Results Overall, 413 patients (mean age, 67 years ± 15 [SD]; 207 men) were included for model development and primary analysis using fivefold cross-validation (247, 83, and 83 patients in the training, validation, and test sets, respectively, for each fold). The model predicted the hypoperfusion lesion with a median DSC of 0.61 (IQR, 0.45-0.71). The model identified patients with target mismatch with a sensitivity of 90% (254 of 283; 95% CI: 86, 93) and specificity of 77% (100 of 130; 95% CI: 69, 83) compared with the clinical-DWI mismatch sensitivity of 50% (140 of 281; 95% CI: 44, 56) and specificity of 89% (116 of 130; 95% CI: 83, 94) (P < .001 for all). Conclusion A three-dimensional U-Net deep learning model predicted the hypoperfusion lesion from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and clinical information and identified patients with a target mismatch profile with higher sensitivity than the clinical-DWI mismatch approach. ClinicalTrials.gov registration nos. NCT02225730, NCT01349946, NCT02586415 © RSNA, 2022 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Kallmes and Rabinstein in this issue.
View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.220882
View details for PubMedID 36472536