Importance: The benefit of reperfusion therapies for acute ischemic stroke decreases over time. This decreasing benefit is presumably due to the disappearance of salvageable ischemic brain tissue (ie, the penumbra).Objective: To study the association between stroke onset-to-imaging time and penumbral volume in patients with acute ischemic stroke with a large vessel occlusion.Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1, 2015, to June 30, 2022. To limit selection bias, patients were selected from (1) the prospective registries of 2 comprehensive centers with systematic use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with perfusion, including both thrombectomy-treated and untreated patients, and (2) 1 prospective thrombectomy study in which MRI with perfusion was acquired per protocol but treatment decisions were made with clinicians blinded to the results. Consecutive patients with acute stroke with intracranial internal carotid artery or first segment of middle cerebral artery occlusion and adequate quality MRI, including perfusion, performed within 24 hours from known symptoms onset were included in the analysis.Exposures: Time from stroke symptom onset to baseline MRI.Main Outcomes and Measures: Penumbral volume, measured using automated software, was defined as the volume of tissue with critical hypoperfusion (time to maximum >6 seconds) minus the volume of the ischemic core. Substantial penumbra was defined as greater than or equal to 15 mL and a mismatch ratio (time to maximum >6-second volume/core volume) greater than or equal to 1.8.Results: Of 940 patients screened, 516 were excluded (no MRI, n=19; no perfusion imaging, n=59; technically inadequate perfusion imaging, n=75; second segment of the middle cerebral artery occlusion, n=156; unwitnessed stroke onset, n=207). Of 424 included patients, 226 (53.3%) were men, and mean (SD) age was 68.9 (15.1) years. Median onset-to-imaging time was 3.8 (IQR, 2.4-5.5) hours. Only 16 patients were admitted beyond 10 hours from symptom onset. Median core volume was 24 (IQR, 8-76) mL and median penumbral volume was 58 (IQR, 29-91) mL. An increment in onset-to-imaging time by 1 hour resulted in a decrease of 3.1 mL of penumbral volume (beta coefficient=-3.1; 95% CI, -4.6 to -1.5; P<.001) and an increase of 3.0 mL of core volume (beta coefficient=3.0; 95% CI, 1.3-4.7; P<.001) after adjustment for confounders. The presence of a substantial penumbra ranged fromapproximately80% in patients imaged at 1 hour to 70% at 5 hours, 60% at 10 hours, and 40% at 15 hours.Conclusions and Relevance: Time is associated with increasing core and decreasing penumbral volumes. Despite this, a substantial percentage of patients have notable penumbra in extended time windows; the findings of this study suggest that a large proportion of patients with large vessel occlusion may benefit from therapeutic interventions.
View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaneurol.2023.0265
View details for PubMedID 36939736